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generate_dvd.cpp

// Copyright 2005-6 Ben Hutchings <ben@decadent.org.uk>.
// See the file "COPYING" for licence details.

#include <cerrno>
#include <cstring>
#include <fstream>
#include <iomanip>
#include <iostream>
#include <ostream>
#include <sstream>
#include <stdexcept>

#include <gdkmm/pixbuf.h>
#include <glibmm/miscutils.h>
#include <glibmm/spawn.h>

#include "dvd.hpp"
#include "generate_dvd.hpp"
#include "xml_utils.hpp"

namespace
{
    // Return a closeness metric of an "end" rectangle to a "start"
    // rectangle in the upward (-1) or downward (+1) direction.  Given
    // several possible "end" rectangles, the one that seems visually
    // closest in the given direction should have the highest value of
    // this metric.  This is necessarily a heuristic function!    
    double directed_closeness(const rectangle & start, const rectangle & end,
                        int y_dir)
    {
      // The obvious approach is to use the centres of the
      // rectangles.  However, for the "end" rectangle, using the
      // horizontal position nearest the centre of the "start"
      // rectangle seems to produce more reasonable results.  For
      // example, if there are two "end" rectangles equally near to
      // the "start" rectangle in terms of vertical distance and one
      // of them horizontally overlaps the centre of the "start"
      // rectangle, we want to pick that one even if the centre of
      // that rectangle is further away from the centre of the
      // "start" rectangle.
      int start_x = (start.left + start.right) / 2;
      int start_y = (start.top + start.bottom) / 2;
      int end_y = (end.top + end.bottom) / 2;
      int end_x;
      if (end.right < start_x)
          end_x = end.right;
      else if (end.left > start_x)
          end_x = end.left;
      else
          end_x = start_x;

      // Return cosine of angle between the line between these points
      // and the vertical, divided by the distance between the points
      // if that is defined and positive; otherwise return 0.
      int vertical_distance = (end_y - start_y) * y_dir;
      if (vertical_distance <= 0)
          return 0.0;
      double distance_squared =
          (end_x - start_x) * (end_x - start_x)
          + (end_y - start_y) * (end_y - start_y);
      return vertical_distance / distance_squared;
    }

    std::string temp_file_name(const temp_dir & dir,
                         std::string base_name,
                         unsigned index=0)
    {
      if (index != 0)
      {
          std::size_t index_pos = base_name.find("%3d");
          assert(index_pos != std::string::npos);
          base_name[index_pos] = '0' + index / 100;
          base_name[index_pos + 1] = '0' + (index / 10) % 10;
          base_name[index_pos + 2] = '0' + index % 10;
      }

      return Glib::build_filename(dir.get_name(), base_name);
    }

    // We would like to use just a single frame for the menu but this
    // seems not to be legal or compatible.  The minimum length of a
    // cell is 0.4 seconds but I've seen a static menu using 12 frames
    // on a commercial "PAL" disc so let's use 12 frames regardless.
    unsigned menu_duration_frames(const video::frame_params & params)
    {
      return 12;
    }
    double menu_duration_seconds(const video::frame_params & params)
    {
      return double(menu_duration_frames(params))
          * double(params.rate_numer)
          / double(params.rate_denom);
    }
}

dvd_generator::dvd_generator(const video::frame_params & frame_params,
                       mpeg_encoder encoder)
      : temp_dir_("videolink-"),
        frame_params_(frame_params),
        encoder_(encoder)
{}

dvd_generator::pgc_ref dvd_generator::add_menu()
{
    pgc_ref next_menu(menu_pgc, menus_.size());

    // Check against maximum number of menus.  It appears that no more
    // than 128 menus are reachable through LinkPGCN instructions, and
    // dvdauthor uses some menu numbers for special purposes, resulting
    // in a practical limit of 119 per domain.  We can work around this
    // later by spreading some menus across titlesets.
    if (next_menu.index == 119)
      throw std::runtime_error("No more than 119 menus can be used");

    menus_.resize(next_menu.index + 1);
    return next_menu;
}

void dvd_generator::add_menu_entry(unsigned index,
                           const rectangle & area,
                           const pgc_ref & target)
{
    assert(index < menus_.size());
    assert(target.type == menu_pgc && target.index < menus_.size()
         || target.type == title_pgc && target.index < titles_.size());
    menu_entry new_entry = { area, target };
    menus_[index].entries.push_back(new_entry);
}

void dvd_generator::generate_menu_vob(unsigned index,
                              Glib::RefPtr<Gdk::Pixbuf> background,
                              Glib::RefPtr<Gdk::Pixbuf> highlights)
    const
{
    assert(index < menus_.size());
    const menu & this_menu = menus_[index];

    std::string background_name(
      temp_file_name(temp_dir_, "menu-%3d-back.png", 1 + index));
    std::cout << "saving " << background_name << std::endl;
    background->save(background_name, "png");

    std::string highlights_name(
      temp_file_name(temp_dir_, "menu-%3d-links.png", 1 + index));
    std::cout << "saving " << highlights_name << std::endl;
    highlights->save(highlights_name, "png");

    std::string spumux_name(
      temp_file_name(temp_dir_, "menu-%3d.subpictures", 1 + index));
    std::ofstream spumux_file(spumux_name.c_str());
    spumux_file <<
      "<subpictures>\n"
      "  <stream>\n"
      "    <spu force='yes' start='00:00:00.00'\n"
      "        highlight='" << highlights_name << "'\n"
      "        select='" << highlights_name << "'>\n";
    int button_count = this_menu.entries.size();
    for (int i = 0; i != button_count; ++i)
    {
      const menu_entry & this_entry = this_menu.entries[i];

      // We program left and right to cycle through the buttons in
      // the order the entries were added.  This should result in
      // left and right behaving like the tab and shift-tab keys
      // would in the browser.  Hopefully that's a sensible order.
      // We program up and down to behave geometrically.
      int up_button = i, down_button = i;
      double up_closeness = 0.0, down_closeness = 0.0;
      for (int j = 0; j != button_count; ++j)
      {
          const menu_entry & other_entry = this_menu.entries[j];
          double closeness = directed_closeness(
            this_entry.area, other_entry.area, -1);
          if (closeness > up_closeness)
          {
            up_button = j;
            up_closeness = closeness;
          }
          else
          {
            closeness = directed_closeness(
                this_entry.area, other_entry.area, 1);
            if (closeness > down_closeness)
            {
                down_button = j;
                down_closeness = closeness;
            }
          }
      }
      spumux_file << "      <button"
          " x0='" << this_entry.area.left << "'"
          " y0='" << this_entry.area.top << "'"
          " x1='" << this_entry.area.right << "'"
          " y1='" << this_entry.area.bottom << "'"
          " left='" << (i == 0 ? button_count : i) << "'"
          " right='" << 1 + (i + 1) % button_count << "'"
          " up='" << 1 + up_button << "'"
          " down='" << 1 + down_button << "'"
          "/>\n";
    }
    spumux_file <<
      "    </spu>\n"
      "  </stream>\n"
      "</subpictures>\n";
    spumux_file.close();
    if (!spumux_file)
      throw std::runtime_error("Failed to write control file for spumux");

    std::ostringstream command_stream;
    unsigned frame_count(menu_duration_frames(frame_params_));
    if (encoder_ == mpeg_encoder_ffmpeg)
    {
      for (unsigned i = 0; i != frame_count; ++i)
      {
          std::string frame_name(background_name);
          frame_name.push_back('-');
          frame_name.push_back('0' + i / 10);
          frame_name.push_back('0' + i % 10);
          if (symlink(background_name.c_str(), frame_name.c_str()) != 0)
            throw std::runtime_error(
                std::string("symlink: ").append(std::strerror(errno)));
      }
      command_stream <<
          "ffmpeg -f image2 -vcodec png"
          " -r " << frame_params_.rate_numer <<
          "/" << frame_params_.rate_denom <<
          " -i " << background_name << "-%02d"
          " -target " << frame_params_.common_name <<  "-dvd"
          " -vcodec mpeg2video -aspect 4:3 -an -y /dev/stdout";
    }
    else
    {
      assert(encoder_ == mpeg_encoder_mjpegtools_old
             || encoder_ == mpeg_encoder_mjpegtools_new);
      command_stream
          << "pngtopnm " << background_name
          << " | ppmtoy4m -v0 -n" << frame_count << " -F"
          << frame_params_.rate_numer << ":" << frame_params_.rate_denom
          << " -A" << frame_params_.pixel_ratio_width
          << ":" << frame_params_.pixel_ratio_height
          << " -Ip ";
      // The chroma subsampling keywords changed between
      // versions 1.6.2 and 1.8 of mjpegtools.  There is no
      // keyword that works with both.
      if (encoder_ == mpeg_encoder_mjpegtools_old)
          command_stream << "-S420_mpeg2";
      else
          command_stream << "-S420mpeg2";
      command_stream <<
          " | mpeg2enc -v0 -f8 -a2 -o/dev/stdout"
          " | mplex -v0 -f8 -o/dev/stdout /dev/stdin";
    }
    command_stream
      << " | spumux -v0 -mdvd " << spumux_name
      << " > " << temp_file_name(temp_dir_, "menu-%3d.mpeg", 1 + index);
    std::string command(command_stream.str());
    const char * argv[] = {
      "/bin/sh", "-c", command.c_str(), 0
    };
    std::cout << "running " << command << std::endl;
    int command_result;
    Glib::spawn_sync(".",
                 Glib::ArrayHandle<std::string>(
                   argv, sizeof(argv)/sizeof(argv[0]),
                   Glib::OWNERSHIP_NONE),
                 Glib::SPAWN_STDOUT_TO_DEV_NULL,
                 SigC::Slot0<void>(),
                 0, 0,
                 &command_result);
    if (command_result != 0)
      throw std::runtime_error("spumux pipeline failed");
}

dvd_generator::pgc_ref dvd_generator::add_title(vob_list & content)
{
    pgc_ref next_title(title_pgc, titles_.size());

    // Check against maximum number of titles.
    if (next_title.index == 99)
      throw std::runtime_error("No more than 99 titles can be used");

    titles_.resize(next_title.index + 1);
    titles_[next_title.index].swap(content);
    return next_title;
}

void dvd_generator::generate(const std::string & output_dir) const
{
    std::string name(temp_file_name(temp_dir_, "videolink.dvdauthor"));
    std::ofstream file(name.c_str());

    // We generate code that uses registers in the following way:
    //
    // g0:     scratch
    // g1:     target menu location
    // g2:     source/return menu location for title
    // g3:     target chapter number
    //
    // All locations are divided into two bitfields: the least
    // significant 10 bits are a page/menu number and the most
    // significant 6 bits are a link/button number, and numbering
    // starts at 1, not 0.  This is done for compatibility with
    // the encoding of the s8 (button) register.
    //
    static const int button_mult = dvd::reg_s8_button_mult;
    static const int menu_mask = button_mult - 1;
    static const int button_mask = (1 << dvd::reg_bits) - button_mult;

    file <<
      "<dvdauthor>\n"
      "  <vmgm>\n"
      "    <menus>\n";
          
    for (unsigned menu_index = 0; menu_index != menus_.size(); ++menu_index)
    {
      const menu & this_menu = menus_[menu_index];

      if (menu_index == 0)
      {
          // This is the first (title) menu, displayed when the
          // disc is first played.
          file <<
            "      <pgc entry='title'>\n"
            "        <pre>\n"
            // Set a default target location if none is set.
            // This covers first play and use of the "top menu"
            // button.
            "          if (g1 eq 0)\n"
            "            g1 = " << 1 + button_mult << ";\n";
      }
      else
      {
          file <<
            "      <pgc>\n"
            "        <pre>\n";
      }

      // When a title finishes or the user presses the "menu"
      // button, this always jumps to the titleset's root menu.
      // We want to return the user to the last menu they used.
      // So we arrange for each titleset's root menu to return
      // to the vmgm title menu and then dispatch from there to
      // whatever the correct menu is.  We determine the correct
      // menu by looking at the menu part of g1.

      file << "          g0 = g1 &amp; " << menu_mask << ";\n";

      // There is a limit of 128 VM instructions in each PGC.
      // Therefore in each menu's <pre> section we generate
      // jumps to menus with numbers greater by 512, 256, 128,
      // ..., 1 where (a) such a menu exists, (b) this menu
      // number is divisible by twice that increment and (c) the
      // correct menu is that or a later menu.  Thus each menu
      // has at most 10 such conditional jumps and is reachable
      // by at most 10 jumps from the title menu.  This chain of
      // jumps might take too long on some players; this has yet
      // to be investigated.
          
      for (std::size_t menu_incr = (menu_mask + 1) / 2;
           menu_incr != 0;
           menu_incr /= 2)
      {
          if (menu_index + menu_incr < menus_.size()
            && (menu_index & (menu_incr * 2 - 1)) == 0)
          {
            file <<
                "          if (g0 ge " << 1 + menu_index + menu_incr
                                 << ")\n"
                "            jump menu " << 1 + menu_index + menu_incr
                                 << ";\n";
          }
      }

      file <<
          // Highlight the appropriate button.
          "          s8 = g1 &amp; " << button_mask << ";\n"
          // Forget the link target.  If we don't do this, pressing
          // the "top menu" button will result in jumping back to
          // this same menu!
          "          g1 = 0;\n"
          "        </pre>\n"
          "        <vob file='"
           << temp_file_name(temp_dir_, "menu-%3d.mpeg", 1 + menu_index)
           << "'>\n"
          // Define a cell covering the whole menu and set a still
          // time at the end of that, since it seems all players
          // support that but some ignore a still time set on a PGC.
          "          <cell start='0' end='"
           << std::fixed << std::setprecision(4)
           << menu_duration_seconds(frame_params_) << "'"
          " chapter='yes' pause='inf'/>\n"
          "        </vob>\n";

      for (unsigned button_index = 0;
           button_index != this_menu.entries.size();
           ++button_index)
      {
          const pgc_ref & target = this_menu.entries[button_index].target;

          file << "        <button> ";

          if (target.type == menu_pgc)
          {
            unsigned target_button_num;

            if (target.sub_index)
            {
                target_button_num = target.sub_index;
            }
            else
            {
                // Look for a button on the new menu that links
                // back to this one.  If there is one, set that to
                // be the highlighted button; otherwise, use the
                // first button.
                const std::vector<menu_entry> & target_menu_entries =
                  menus_[target.index].entries;
                pgc_ref this_pgc(menu_pgc, menu_index);
                target_button_num = target_menu_entries.size();
                while (target_button_num != 1
                     && (target_menu_entries[target_button_num - 1].target
                         != this_pgc))
                  --target_button_num;
            }
                   
            file <<
                // Set new menu location.
                "g1 = " << (1 + target.index
                        + target_button_num * button_mult) << "; "
                // Jump to the target menu.
                "jump menu " << 1 + target.index << "; ";
          }
          else
          {
            assert(target.type == title_pgc);

            file <<
                // Record current menu location.
                "g2 = " << (1 + menu_index
                        + (1 + button_index) * button_mult) << "; "
                // Set target chapter number.
                "g3 = " << target.sub_index << "; "
                // Jump to the target title.
                "jump title " << 1 + target.index << "; ";
          }

          file <<  "</button>\n";
      }

      file <<
          "      </pgc>\n";
    }

    file <<
      "    </menus>\n"
      "  </vmgm>\n";
 
    // Generate a titleset for each title.  This appears to make
    // jumping to titles a whole lot simpler (but limits us to 99
    // titles).
    for (unsigned title_index = 0;
       title_index != titles_.size();
       ++title_index)
    {
      file <<
          "  <titleset>\n"
          // Generate a dummy menu so that the "menu" button will
          // work.  This returns to the source menu via the title
          // menu.
          "    <menus>\n"
          "      <pgc entry='root'>\n"
          "        <pre> g1 = g2; jump vmgm menu; </pre>\n"
          "      </pgc>\n"
          "    </menus>\n"
          "    <titles>\n"
          "      <pgc>\n"
          "        <pre>\n";

      // Count chapters in the title.
      unsigned n_chapters = 0;
      for (vob_list::const_iterator
             it = titles_[title_index].begin(),
             end = titles_[title_index].end();
           it != end;
           ++it)
      {
          // Chapter start times may be specified in the "chapters"
          // attribute as a comma-separated list.  If this is not
          // specified then the beginning of each file starts a new
          // chapter.  Thus the number of chapters in each file is
          // the number of commas in the chapter attribute, plus 1.
          ++n_chapters;
          std::size_t pos = 0;
          while ((pos = it->chapters.find(',', pos)) != std::string::npos)
          {
            ++n_chapters;
            ++pos;
          }
      }

      // Generate jump "table" for chapters.
      for (unsigned chapter_num = 1;
           chapter_num <= n_chapters;
           ++chapter_num)
          file <<
            "          if (g3 == " << chapter_num << ")\n"
            "            jump chapter " << chapter_num << ";\n";

      file <<
          "        </pre>\n";

      for (vob_list::const_iterator
             it = titles_[title_index].begin(),
             end = titles_[title_index].end();
           it != end;
           ++it)
      {
          file << "        <vob file='" << xml_escape(it->file) << "'";
          if (!it->chapters.empty())
            file << " chapters='" << xml_escape(it->chapters) << "'";
          if (!it->pause.empty())
            file << " pause='" << xml_escape(it->pause) << "'";
          file << "/>\n";
      }

      file <<
          "        <post>\n"
          // Return to the source menu, but highlight the next button.
          "          g2 = g2 + " << button_mult << ";\n"
          "          call menu;\n"
          "        </post>\n"
          "      </pgc>\n"
          "    </titles>\n"
          "  </titleset>\n";
    }

    file <<
      "</dvdauthor>\n";

    file.close();

    {
      const char * argv[] = {
          "dvdauthor",
          "-o", output_dir.c_str(),
          "-x", name.c_str(),
          0
      };
      int command_result;
      Glib::spawn_sync(".",
                   Glib::ArrayHandle<std::string>(
                       argv, sizeof(argv)/sizeof(argv[0]),
                       Glib::OWNERSHIP_NONE),
                   Glib::SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH
                   | Glib::SPAWN_STDOUT_TO_DEV_NULL,
                   SigC::Slot0<void>(),
                   0, 0,
                   &command_result);
      if (command_result != 0)
          throw std::runtime_error("dvdauthor failed");
    }
}

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